文学外译,道阻且长


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中国文学的英译经历了一百五十多年的历史。中国几代外国学者为此做出了不懈的努力,但效果一直不尽如人意。原因当然非常复杂,但有两个明显的原因经常被忽视。首先,中国译者对目标读者的接受程度不够了解,因此他们对翻译策略的选择不够灵活。其次,翻译之外的推广不到位。当然,个别外国译者随意添加,改变或删除中国文学作品的现象最终导致读者的流失并未被讨论。

一个冷和一个热两个“红色建筑”,原因是改变

《红楼梦》的英文翻译是典型案例。《红楼梦》有11个中文译本已经正式出版,其中最值得称道的是英国汉学家大卫霍克斯和学徒约翰德福德(后来两个成为翁毅)。翻译,另一个是杨宪益和他的妻子格拉迪斯的翻译。但是,在英语世界中,这两种英语翻译在中国是非常不同的。

The English world academic circle has a greater recognition of the Huo translation than the Yang translation. The collection of the Huo translation and the reader rating of the Amazon Bookstore are also higher than the Yang translation. Most of Yang's translations are placed in university libraries, which are only accessible and referenced by some East Asian researchers and translation researchers, while Huo's translations are accepted by more ordinary English readers. In fact, this reason is not complicated. The Yang translation is biased towards literal translation. The academic circles call it domestication, which means more faithful to the original. The translation of Huoyi focuses on free translation. The academic circles call it alienation, which is to try to consider it for readers. Yang Xianyi believes that when translating, you can't explain too much. The translator should be as faithful as possible to the original text, neither exaggerating nor carrying anything else. Too much emphasis on creativity is not right, because in this way, it is not in translation, but in rewriting articles. In an interview with the editor of Australia《半球》magazine in 1980, Gladys also said openly and honestly: "(Our translator) readers do not like to read because we are biased towards literal translation." Of course, as China's overall national strength continues to increase, China The status in the world is getting higher and higher, and the literal translation of the original is more and more easily accepted by English readers. Ge Haowen's faithful translation of the works of Chinese writers such as Mo Yan, Jiang Yan and Liu Zhenyun in the English world is a good proof.

xx莫言获诺贝尔文学奖后,他作品的主要英译本葛浩文在英语世界中成为中国现当代文学的“首席译者”。有些人认为葛浩文的中文文学英译是“不断翻译和翻译”,甚至“改写”,因为葛浩文已经删除或调整了原文。但事实上,葛浩文的中国文学英译本在内容和形式上都非常忠实于原文。他本人也说,在将中国文学翻译成英文时,他“倾向于字面翻译”,以“更多地保持源语言的文化特征”。在翻译《丰乳肥臀》中,葛浩文基本上采用了具有强烈地方文化特征的谚语,典故和后语的异化方法,但在很多情况下,采用归化方法。在尊重原文的基础上,从阅读效果的角度看,归化与异化同样重要,掌握学位是葛浩文翻译中国文学的主要思想。事实证明,葛浩文是成功的。 (通过社会科学期刊点击“了解更多”获取全文)